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Deisseroth wins Albany Prize
The bioengineer and psychiatrist will be honored for his seminal role in the field of optogenetics, which allows scientists to precisely manipulate nerve-cell activity in freely moving animals to study their behavior.
Ethnic differences thwart talk about dying
Doctors struggle to start discussions with ailing patients about how they want to spend their last days, a survey finds. The upshot? Patients should bring up the topic themselves.
Cellular culprit in scarring identified
A single cell type in the skin of mice is a major contributor to scarring after wound healing or radiation damage, and facilitates the growth of melanoma. Blocking the cell’s activity in humans may be possible with currently approved drugs.
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A Legacy of Innovation
First synthesis of biologically active DNA in test tube
Nobel laureate Arthur Kornberg creates a strand of biologically active DNA, paving the way for studies of genetics.
First adult human heart transplant in the United States
Norman Shumway successfully transplants a heart into 54-year-old steelworker Mike Kasperak, who survives for 14 days.
First expression of a foreign gene implanted in bacteria by recombinant DNA methods
Geneticist Stanely Cohen transfers a foreign gene into bacterial cells, which then express the gene.
First successful human combined heart/lung transplant in the world (fourth attempted worldwide)
Mary Gohlke receives the world's first combined heart and lung transplant in a landmark operation led by surgeon Bruce Reitz.
Isolation of pure hematopoietic stem cells from mice
Pathologist Irving Weissman isolates a rare mouse cell, known as the hematopoetic stem cell, which gives rise to all the cells of the blood and immune systems.
First use of gene expression profiling to predict cancer outcomes
Application and expansion of optogenetics, a technique to control brain cell activity with light
Bioengineer Karl Deisseroth and his team develop a technique known as optogenetics that allows them to genetically alter brain cell activity in mice with light.